Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world, consists of 5 major islands, and has about 30 smaller groups. There is a total of 17.508 islands of which about 6000 are inhabited. Straddling the equator, the archipelago is at crossroads between 2 oceans. They are the Pacific and the Indian Ocean, bridges of 2 continents and they are Asia and Australia.
The territory of Indonesia stretches from 6°08' N latitude to 11°15' S latitude, and from 94°45' E to 141°05' E longitude, and the total area of Indonesia is 1.919.440 km square. The land: 1.826.440 km square and the sea area is 93.000 km square. The 5 main islands are Sumatra 473.606 km square. Most fertile land and densely populated islands: Java and Madura are 132,107 km square. Kalimantan, which comprises 2/3 of Borneo island 539.460 km square, Sulawesi 189.216 km square. Then Papua is 421.981 km square, which is the second-largest island, it is Papua New Guinea.
The country predominantly with 400 mountainous and 100 of them are active volcanoes. The highest mountain is a perpetually snow-capped Mandala top 6000 meters on mount Jaya Wijaya in Papua Island. Plenty of rivers flow throughout the country. They serve as useful transportation routes on certain islands, like Musi, Batanghari, Indragiri, and Kampar rivers in Sumatra; Kapuas, Barito, Mahakam, Rejang rivers in Borneo and Memberamo, Digul rivers in Papua.
Weather and Climate
Because of its proximity to the equator, that is why Indonesia has a tropical climate. Normally the weather is hot and humid. Indonesian climate is divided become 2 distinct seasons: dry and rainy seasons. The rainy season from November up to April, but certain places like Maluku have theirs from March up to August. During the rainy season, it starts around afternoon time and lasts into the afternoon. Some areas could have sudden showers for more than 3 hours.
The dry season means no rain tropical showers in the dry season is a regular affair. The temperature is constant except for exceptionally rainy season nights when it could drop. The temperature on the coast is about 28° Celsius and drops dramatically on the highlands. For instance, in the highlands of Papua, temperatures at night can drop to about 7° C, while during daytime reaches about 22° C.
Present-day, Indonesian culture is the outcome of the interplay of old traditions from early migrants and western thought brought by Dutch colonists and Portuguese traders. The basic principle includes the concept of mutual assistance and consultations to arrive at the result. Derived from rural life, this system is still very much use in community life throughout Indonesia country. Though the legal system is based on the Old Dutch penal code and social life as well as the rites of passage are founded on customary or "adat" law, which differs from one place to another. The law has been instrumental in maintaining gender equality in Indonesia.